Biol 516 Pesticides, Toxicology and the Environment (2 cr.)

Historical background, the development and use of pesticides; generation of pesticides; formulation ,types of formulations, selection of formulations, and classification based on targets, advantages and disadvantages of pesticides, application of pesticides, Classification of insecticides ‐ Chemical Pesticides ‐ Biolarvicides ‐ Insect growth regulators (IGRs) ‐ Mode of action of pesticide; Adjuvant combining insecticides: Physical and Chemical incompatibility, formulation, and classification based on targets, advantages and disadvantages of pesticides, Evaluation of chemical Larvicides/IGRs/biolarvicides: Effect on non target organisms ‐ Operational and community acceptability; Evaluation: Repellents; Adulticides, insecticide treated Nets and Fabrics; Evaluation indicators: Process indicators ‐ Entomological indicators; Synergism, antagonism, systemic and selective insecticides. Insecticide residue-their significance, analysis and environmental implications. Diagnosis and treatment of insecticide poisoning. Evaluation of Insecticides; Insect resistance to insecticides; Insecticide resistance in different vectors and key pests; Detection and monitoring of pest (vector) resistance; Management of pesticide resistance; Present status of insecticide resistance, Impact of insecticide resistance on the control of pests (vectors); Socio economic impact of resistance. Impacts on ecosystems (aquatic, soil, air), food chains, non-target organisms, humans, distribution and fate of pesticides in the environment. Insecticide Resistance and Management ;Possible management options of pesticides to minimize impacts of pesticides in the environment.